Carpal tunnel syndrome is essentially a pinched nerve in the wrist. There is a space in the wrist called the carpal tunnel where the median nerve and nine tendons pass from the forearm into the hand (Figure 1). Carpal tunnel syndrome happens when pressure builds up from swelling in this tunnel and puts pressure on the nerve.
Pressure on the nerve can happen several ways, including:
The situations listed above can narrow the carpal tunnel or cause swelling in the tunnel. Thyroid conditions, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes can also be associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. Ultimately, there can be many causes of this condition.
Symptoms of this condition can include:
A detailed history including medical conditions, how the hands have been used, and any prior injuries is important in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome. An x-ray may be taken to check for arthritis or a fracture. In some cases, laboratory tests may be done. Electrodiagnostic studies are also a possibility to confirm the diagnosis and check for other possible nerve problems.
Symptoms may often be relieved without surgery. Some treatment options are:
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